A beard is the hair that grows on a man's chin, cheeks, neck, and the area above the upper lip (the opposite is a clean-shaven face). In the course of history, men with facial hair have been ascribed various attributes such as wisdom, sexual potency, or high status, but also a lack of cleanliness and refinement, or an eccentric disposition.
In urban circles of Western Europe and the Americas, beards were out of fashion after the early 17th century; to such an extent that, in 1698, Peter I Peter the Great of Russia levied a tax on beards in order to bring Russian society more in line with contemporary Western Europe.
Beards returned to fashion after the Napoleonic Era, and were out of fashion again by the first part of the 20th century. Beards, together with long hair, were reintroduced to mainstream society in Western Europe and North America by the hippie movement of the mid 1960s. By the end of the of the 20th century, the closely clipped Verdi beard, often with a matching integrated moustache, was relatively common, as was a stubble beard (especially on younger men). Full beards nonetheless remain a fringe phenomenon.
There are many styles in which facial hair may be worn.
- Full beard - downward flowing beard with either styled or integrated moustache
- Chinstrap - a beard with long side burns then comes forward and end under the chin resembling a chinstrap, hence the name.
- Goatee - a beard formed by a tuft of hair on the chin, in some cases resembling that of a billy goat
- Garibaldi - wide, full beard with rounded bottom and integrated moustache
- Royale (or impÃ©riale) - is a tuft of hair under the lower lip.
- Stubble - a very short beard of only one to a few days growth
- Van Dyck - a goatee accompanied by a moustache
- Verdi - short beard with rounded bottom and slightly shaven cheeks with prominent moustache
Beard hair is most commonly removed by shaving. The removal of all facial hair is known as being clean shaven. If only the area above the upper lip is left unshaven, the resulting facial hairstyle is known as a moustache; if hair is left only on the chin, the style is a goatee. It is decidedly less common to see a beard or goatee without a corresponding moustache.
Ancient Egyptians associated facial hair with mourning. With the exception of a pencil-thin moustache or goatees, they generally found beards unattractive.
It was a custom among the Romans to consecrate the first growth of their beard to some god; thus Nero at the Gynick games, which he exhibited in the Septa, cut off the first growth of his beard, which he placed in a golden box, adorned with pearls, and then consecrated it in the Capitol to Jupiter Jupiter.
The nations in the east generally treated their beards with great care and veneration, and the punishment for licentiousness and adultery was to have the beard of the offending parties publicly cut off. They had such a sacred regard for the preservation of their beards that a man might pledge it for the payment of a debt. Among the Romans a bearded man was a proverbial expression for a man of virtue and simplicity. The Romans during grief and mourning used to let their hair and beard grow (Livy), while the Greeks on the contrary used to cut off their hair and shave their beards on such occasions (Seneca) (From this custom probably originated that in England, of widows concealing their hair for a stated period after the death of their husbands. Indeed, we know of more than one instance of a widow closely cutting off her hair. But these sorrowful observances are becoming less and less frequent). When Alexander the Great was going to fight against the Persians, one of his officers brought him word that all was ready for battle, and demanded if he required anything further. On which Alexander replied, "nothing but that the Macedonians cut off their beards, for there is not a better handle to take a man by than the beard." This shows Alexander intended close fighting. Shaving was not introduced among the Romans until late. Pliny tells us that P. Ticinius was the first who brought a barber to Rome, which was in the 454th year from the building of the city. Scipio Africanus was the first among the Romans who shaved his beard, and the Emperor Hadrian (says Dion) was the first of all the Caesars who nourished his beard.
The Roman servants or slaves were not allowed to pull their hair, or shave their beards. The Jews thought it ignominious to lose their beards (2 Samuels ch. 10, verse 4). Among the Catti, a Germany|German tribe (perhaps the Chatten), a young man was not allowed to shave or cut his hair till he had slain an enemy (Tacitus). The Lombards or Longobards, derived their Fame from the great length of their beards. When Otho the Great used to speak anything serious, he swore by his beard, which covered his breast. The Persians are fond of long beards. We read in Olearius' Travels of a king of Persia who had commanded his steward's head to be cut off, and on its being brought to him, he remarked, "what a pity it was, that a man possessing such fine mustachios, should have been executed," but added he, "Ah! it was your own fault."
In the 15th century, the beard was worn long. In the 16th, it was suffered to grow to an amazing length during Queen Mary's reign and very often made use of as a tooth-pick case. Brantome tells us that Admiral Coligny wore his tooth-pick in his beard.
Beards also play an important role in some religions. In ancient mythology Zeus and Poseidon are always portrayed with beards, but Apollo never is. A bearded Hermes was replaced with the more familiar beardless youth in the 5th century. Sikhs do not remove a single hair from their beard, and their body.
In Judaism, Leviticus 19:27 states that "Ye shall not round the comers of your heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard." Talmudic rabbis understood this to mean only that one should not shave their beard with a razor with a single blade. Because scissors have two blades, rabbinic law permits their use to trim the beard. For this reason, many Jews also use electric razors, which may have two or more blades. A full beard is nonetheless regarded by many as an important Jewish tradition. Additionally, the Zohar describes a beard as a channel of holiness and blessing, and for this reason, prohibits trimming or shaving the beard for any reason.
Judaism's traditions have influenced other Abrahamic religions. In Orthodox Christianity, beards are worn by the priesthood, and at times have been required for all believers - see Old Believers. Amish and Hutterite men shave until they are married, then grow a beard and are never thereafter without one, although it is a particular form of a beard. Many devout Muslims also grow their facial hair, in emulation of the Prophet Muhammad.
- "The hair of the chin showed him to be a man." St Clement of Alexandria (c.195, E), 2.271
- "How womanly it is for one who is a man to comb himself and shave himself with a razor, for the sake of fine effect, and to arrange his hair at the mirror, shave his cheeks, pluck hairs out of them, and smooth them!…For God wished women to be smooth and to rejoice in their locks alone growing spontaneously, as a horse in his mane. But He adorned man like the lions, with a beard, and endowed him as an attribute of manhood, with a hairy chest--a sign of strength and rule." St. Clement of Alexandria, 2.275
- “This, then, is the mark of the man, the beard. By this, he is seen to be a man. It is older than Eve. It is the token of the superior nature….It is therefore unholy to desecrate the symbol of manhood, hairiness.” St. Clement of Alexandria, 2.276
- "It is not lawful to pluck out the beard, man’s natural and noble adornment." St. Clement of Alexandria, 2.277
- "In their manners, there was no discipline. In men, their beards were defaced." St Cyprian (c. 250, W), 5.438
- "The beard must not be plucked. 'You will not deface the figure of your beard'." Lev 19:32 St. Cyprian, 5.553
- "The nature of the beard contributes in an incredible degree to distinguish the maturity of bodies, or to distinguish the sex, or to contribute to the beauty of manliness and strength." Lactantius (c. 304-314, W), 7.288
- "Men may not destroy the hair of their beards and unnaturally change the form of a man. For the Law says, “You will not deface your beards.” For God the Creator has made this decent for women, but has determined that it is unsuitable for men." Apostolic Constitutions (compiled c.390, E) 7.392. (1)
Modern attitudes in America
From the 1920s to the 1960s, beards were virtually forbidden in mainstream America. The few men who wore beards during this period were either old, Central Europeans in academia, or part of the counterculture, such as the "beatniks". Even today there is some degree of prejudice against beards and against men who wear beards, although it is much less serious than it once was; beards are normally much more accepted in the Western world than they once were.
It has been noted that there is a close and consistent association of long standing in American film between facial hair and role -- if one lead male character has more facial hair than another, he is far more likely to be the antagonist, and the man with less (or no) facial hair the protagonist.
The enlistment of military recruits for World War I in 1914 precipitated a major migration of men from rural to urban locales. This was the largest such migration that had ever occurred in the United States up to that time. The rural lives of some of these bearded men included the "Saturday Night bath" as a reality rather than as a humourism. The sudden concentration of recruits in crowded army induction centers brought with it disease, including head lice. Remedial action was taken by immediately shaving the faces and cutting the hair of all inductees upon their arrival.
When the war concluded in 1918 the "Dough Boys" returned to a hero's welcome. During this time period the Film Industry was coming into its own and "going to the movies" became an extremely popular pastime. Due to the recent Armistice many of the films had themes related to World War I. These popular films featured actors who portrayed soldiers with their clean shaven faces and "crew cuts". Concurrently, "Madison Avenue's" psychological mass marketing was becoming prevalent. The Gillette Safety Razor Company was one of these marketers' early clients. These events conspired to popularize short hair and clean shaven faces as the only acceptable style for decades to come.
The Armed Forces
Many armed forces still prohibit beards for reasons of hygiene, discipline, or tactical demands (such as the proper fitting and seal of a gas mask); they may also be permitted for cultural, religious, or traditional reasons.
The Canadian Forces permits moustaches, provided they are neatly trimmed and do not pass beyond the corners of the mouth; an exception to this is the handlebar moustache, which is permitted. Generally speaking, beards are not permitted to CF personnel with the following exceptions:
- members wearing the naval uniform (tradition)
- members of an infantry pioneer platoon (tradition)
- Sikhs (religious requirement)
- Orthodox Jews (religious requirement)
- members with a medical condition which precludes shaving
These exceptions notwithstanding, in no case is a beard permitted without a moustache, and only full beards may be worn (not goatees, Anthony van Dykes, etc).
Personnel with beards may still be required to modify or shave off the beard, as environmental or tactical circumstances dictate (e.g. to facilitate the wearing of a gas mask).
The Spanish Legion allows beards to be grown.
In the United Kingdom, the Royal Navy allows "full sets" (beards and moustaches together) but not beards or moustaches alone. The other British armed services allow moustaches only. Exceptions are beards grown for religious reasons (usually by Sikhs), though in the event of conflict in which the use of chemical or biological weapons is likely, they may be required to shave a strip around the seal of a respirator. Beards are also permitted for medical reasons, such as temporary skin irritations, or by infantry pioneer warrant officers, colour sergeants and sergeants, who traditionally wear beards. Any style of facial hair is allowed in British police forces as long as it is neatly trimmed.
The U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps justify banning beards on the basis of both hygiene and of the necessity for a good seal with gas masks. The U.S. Navy did allow beards for a time in the 1970s and 1980s, but subsequently banned them again. The vast majority of police forces across the United States still ban beards. However, moustaches are generally allowed in both the military and police forces. U.S. Army Special Forces have been allowed to wear beards in Afghanistan in order to fit in with the indigenous population better.
Sayings about beards
- "There are two kinds of people in this world that go around beardless—boys and women, and I am neither one".
- A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs, David W. Bercot, Editor, pg 66-67.
- Helen Bunkin, Randall Williams: Beards, Beards, Beards (Hunter & Cyr, 2000) (ISBN 1588380017)
- Allan Peterkin: One Thousand Beards. A Cultural History of Facial Hair (Arsenal Pulp Press, 2001) (ISBN 1551521075)
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